다른 사람이 어떤 주제에 대하여 생각할 수 있도록 돕는 좋은 방법은 그 주제에 대하여 질문을 하는 것입니다. 좋은 질문은 정보를 함께 공유할 수 있는데 도움이 될 뿐만 아니라, 기존 아이디어를 평가해 보고 또 새로운 아이디어를 창출하는 데도 도움이 됩니다.
다른 사람으로 하여금 학습할 수 있도록 유도하는 전형적인 질문법은 옛 그리스의 소크라테스로부터 유래한 소위 소크라테스의 산파법이 있습니다.
소크라테스의 산파법의 요체는 다른 사람의 발언을 아주 주의깊게 경청한다는 것입니다. 그래서 여러분들이 강압적인 방법을 쓰지 않고도, 상대방을 파악하여 건설적이고 유익한 질문을 구안해 낼 수 있기 때문입니다.
다음은 그러한 질문법의 사례를 보인 것입니다.
Questions of clarification
- What do you mean when you say ______?
- What is your main point?
- How does _____ relate to _____?
- Could you put that another way?
- Let me see if I understand you; do you mean _____ or _____?
- How does this relate to our problem/discussion/issue?
- Jane, can you summarize in your own words what Richard said? ... Richard, is this what you meant?
- Could you give me an example?
- Would _____ be a good example of that?
Questions that probe assumptions
- What are you assuming here?
- What is Jenny assuming?
- What could we assume instead?
- You seem to be assuming _____. Do I understand you correctly?
- All of your reasoning depends on the idea that _____. Why have you based your reasoning on _____ instead of _____?
- You seem to be assuming _____. How do you justify taking that for granted?
- Is that always the case? Why do you think the assumption holds here?
- Why would someone make that assumption?
Questions that probe reasons and evidence
- Could you explain your reasons to us?
- How does that apply to this case?
- Is there a reason to doubt that evidence?
- Who is in a position to know that is true?
- What would you say to someone who said that ____?
- Can someone else give evidence to support that view?
- By what reasoning did you come to that conclusion?
- How could we find out if that is true?
Questions about viewpoints or perspectives
- What are you implying by that?
- When you say _____, are you implying _____?
- But, if that happened, what else would happen as a result? Why?
- What effect would that have?
- Would that necessarily happen or only possibly/probably happen?
- What is an alternative?
- If _____ and _____ are the case, then what might also be true?
- If we say that ____ is ethical, how about _____?
Questions that probe implications and consequences
- How can we find out?
- What does this question assume?
- Would _____ ask this question differently?
- How could someone settle this question?
- Can we break this question down at all?
- Is this question clear? Do we understand it?
- Is this question easy or hard to answer? Why?
- Do we all agree that this is the question?
- To answer this question, what other questions must we answer first?
- How would _____ state the issue?
- Why is this issue important?
- Is this the most important question, or is there an underlying question?
- Can you see how this might relate to ________?
Questions adapted from Paul, R. (1993). Critical Thinking: How To Prepare Students for a Rapidly Changing World: Foundation for Critical Thinking, Santa Rosa, CA.
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